How to run Apache Cassandra database on a two nodes FreeBSD 9.0 cluster

Prime knots chartScalability and high availability are key features of Apache Cassandra database. It supports replicas across multiple datacenters so there are no single points of failure and no network bottlenecks.
I’m going to show you how to install Cassandra on a two-nodes cluster made of two fresh-installed FreeBSD 9.0 servers.

Common steps for node1 (IPv4 192.0.2.1) and node2 (IPv4 192.0.2.2).

Cassandra needs a java environment, so accept the license agreement and grab diablo-caffe from: http://www.freebsdfoundation.org/cgi-bin/download?download=diablo-caffe-freebsd7-amd64-1.6.0_07-b02.tar.bz2

Now put diablo-caffe-freebsd7-amd64-1.6.0_07-b02.tar.bz2 in /usr/port/distfiles and start with the installation process:

cd /usr/ports/java/openjdk6
make install clean
cd /usr/port/databases/cassandra
make install clean

Allow Cassandra starting at boot time
echo 'cassandra_enable="YES"' >> /etc/rc.conf

Now, configuration for node1

Remember to set a FQDN hostname in /etc/rc.conf
hostname="node1.example.com"

Edit cassandra.yaml to make Cassandra work in a two-node cluster:
vi /usr/local/share/cassandra/conf/cassandra.yaml

Feel free to use the following configuration file slightly changed to serve as first node of the cluster:


# Cassandra storage config YAML

# NOTE:
# See http://wiki.apache.org/cassandra/StorageConfiguration for
# full explanations of configuration directives
# /NOTE

# The name of the cluster. This is mainly used to prevent machines in
# one logical cluster from joining another.
cluster_name: 'Test Cluster'

# You should always specify InitialToken when setting up a production
# cluster for the first time, and often when adding capacity later.
# The principle is that each node should be given an equal slice of
# the token ring; see http://wiki.apache.org/cassandra/Operations
# for more details.
#
# If blank, Cassandra will request a token bisecting the range of
# the heaviest-loaded existing node. If there is no load information
# available, such as is the case with a new cluster, it will pick
# a random token, which will lead to hot spots.
initial_token: 0

# See http://wiki.apache.org/cassandra/HintedHandoff
hinted_handoff_enabled: true
# this defines the maximum amount of time a dead host will have hints
# generated. After it has been dead this long, hints will be dropped.
max_hint_window_in_ms: 3600000 # one hour
# Sleep this long after delivering each hint
hinted_handoff_throttle_delay_in_ms: 1

# authentication backend, implementing IAuthenticator; used to identify users
authenticator: org.apache.cassandra.auth.AllowAllAuthenticator

# authorization backend, implementing IAuthority; used to limit access/provide permissions
authority: org.apache.cassandra.auth.AllowAllAuthority

# The partitioner is responsible for distributing rows (by key) across
# nodes in the cluster. Any IPartitioner may be used, including your
# own as long as it is on the classpath. Out of the box, Cassandra
# provides org.apache.cassandra.dht.RandomPartitioner
# org.apache.cassandra.dht.ByteOrderedPartitioner,
# org.apache.cassandra.dht.OrderPreservingPartitioner (deprecated),
# and org.apache.cassandra.dht.CollatingOrderPreservingPartitioner
# (deprecated).
#
# - RandomPartitioner distributes rows across the cluster evenly by md5.
# When in doubt, this is the best option.
# - ByteOrderedPartitioner orders rows lexically by key bytes. BOP allows
# scanning rows in key order, but the ordering can generate hot spots
# for sequential insertion workloads.
# - OrderPreservingPartitioner is an obsolete form of BOP, that stores
# - keys in a less-efficient format and only works with keys that are
# UTF8-encoded Strings.
# - CollatingOPP colates according to EN,US rules rather than lexical byte
# ordering. Use this as an example if you need custom collation.
#
# See http://wiki.apache.org/cassandra/Operations for more on
# partitioners and token selection.
partitioner: org.apache.cassandra.dht.RandomPartitioner

# directories where Cassandra should store data on disk.
data_file_directories:
- /var/lib/cassandra/data

# commit log
commitlog_directory: /var/lib/cassandra/commitlog

# saved caches
saved_caches_directory: /var/lib/cassandra/saved_caches

# commitlog_sync may be either "periodic" or "batch."
# When in batch mode, Cassandra won't ack writes until the commit log
# has been fsynced to disk. It will wait up to
# commitlog_sync_batch_window_in_ms milliseconds for other writes, before
# performing the sync.
#
# commitlog_sync: batch
# commitlog_sync_batch_window_in_ms: 50
#
# the other option is "periodic" where writes may be acked immediately
# and the CommitLog is simply synced every commitlog_sync_period_in_ms
# milliseconds.
commitlog_sync: periodic
commitlog_sync_period_in_ms: 10000

# any class that implements the SeedProvider interface and has a
# constructor that takes a Map of parameters will do.
seed_provider:
# Addresses of hosts that are deemed contact points.
# Cassandra nodes use this list of hosts to find each other and learn
# the topology of the ring. You must change this if you are running
# multiple nodes!
- class_name: org.apache.cassandra.locator.SimpleSeedProvider
parameters:
# seeds is actually a comma-delimited list of addresses.
# Ex: ",,"
- seeds: "192.0.2.1"

# emergency pressure valve: each time heap usage after a full (CMS)
# garbage collection is above this fraction of the max, Cassandra will
# flush the largest memtables.
#
# Set to 1.0 to disable. Setting this lower than
# CMSInitiatingOccupancyFraction is not likely to be useful.
#
# RELYING ON THIS AS YOUR PRIMARY TUNING MECHANISM WILL WORK POORLY:
# it is most effective under light to moderate load, or read-heavy
# workloads; under truly massive write load, it will often be too
# little, too late.
flush_largest_memtables_at: 0.75

# emergency pressure valve #2: the first time heap usage after a full
# (CMS) garbage collection is above this fraction of the max,
# Cassandra will reduce cache maximum _capacity_ to the given fraction
# of the current _size_. Should usually be set substantially above
# flush_largest_memtables_at, since that will have less long-term
# impact on the system.
#
# Set to 1.0 to disable. Setting this lower than
# CMSInitiatingOccupancyFraction is not likely to be useful.
reduce_cache_sizes_at: 0.85
reduce_cache_capacity_to: 0.6

# For workloads with more data than can fit in memory, Cassandra's
# bottleneck will be reads that need to fetch data from
# disk. "concurrent_reads" should be set to (16 * number_of_drives) in
# order to allow the operations to enqueue low enough in the stack
# that the OS and drives can reorder them.
#
# On the other hand, since writes are almost never IO bound, the ideal
# number of "concurrent_writes" is dependent on the number of cores in
# your system; (8 * number_of_cores) is a good rule of thumb.
concurrent_reads: 32
concurrent_writes: 32

# Total memory to use for memtables. Cassandra will flush the largest
# memtable when this much memory is used.
# If omitted, Cassandra will set it to 1/3 of the heap.
# memtable_total_space_in_mb: 2048

# Total space to use for commitlogs.
# If space gets above this value (it will round up to the next nearest
# segment multiple), Cassandra will flush every dirty CF in the oldest
# segment and remove it.
# commitlog_total_space_in_mb: 4096

# This sets the amount of memtable flush writer threads. These will
# be blocked by disk io, and each one will hold a memtable in memory
# while blocked. If you have a large heap and many data directories,
# you can increase this value for better flush performance.
# By default this will be set to the amount of data directories defined.
#memtable_flush_writers: 1

# the number of full memtables to allow pending flush, that is,
# waiting for a writer thread. At a minimum, this should be set to
# the maximum number of secondary indexes created on a single CF.
memtable_flush_queue_size: 4

# Buffer size to use when performing contiguous column slices.
# Increase this to the size of the column slices you typically perform
sliced_buffer_size_in_kb: 64

# TCP port, for commands and data
storage_port: 7000

# SSL port, for encrypted communication. Unused unless enabled in
# encryption_options
ssl_storage_port: 7001

# Address to bind to and tell other Cassandra nodes to connect to. You
# _must_ change this if you want multiple nodes to be able to
# communicate!
#
# Leaving it blank leaves it up to InetAddress.getLocalHost(). This
# will always do the Right Thing *if* the node is properly configured
# (hostname, name resolution, etc), and the Right Thing is to use the
# address associated with the hostname (it might not be).
#
# Setting this to 0.0.0.0 is always wrong.
listen_address: 192.0.2.1

# Address to broadcast to other Cassandra nodes
# Leaving this blank will set it to the same value as listen_address
# broadcast_address: 1.2.3.4

# The address to bind the Thrift RPC service to -- clients connect
# here. Unlike ListenAddress above, you *can* specify 0.0.0.0 here if
# you want Thrift to listen on all interfaces.
#
# Leaving this blank has the same effect it does for ListenAddress,
# (i.e. it will be based on the configured hostname of the node).
rpc_address: 192.0.2.1
# port for Thrift to listen for clients on
rpc_port: 9160

# enable or disable keepalive on rpc connections
rpc_keepalive: true

# Cassandra provides three options for the RPC Server:
#
# sync -> One connection per thread in the rpc pool (see below).
# For a very large number of clients, memory will be your limiting
# factor; on a 64 bit JVM, 128KB is the minimum stack size per thread.
# Connection pooling is very, very strongly recommended.
#
# async -> Nonblocking server implementation with one thread to serve
# rpc connections. This is not recommended for high throughput use
# cases. Async has been tested to be about 50% slower than sync
# or hsha and is deprecated: it will be removed in the next major release.
#
# hsha -> Stands for "half synchronous, half asynchronous." The rpc thread pool
# (see below) is used to manage requests, but the threads are multiplexed
# across the different clients.
#
# The default is sync because on Windows hsha is about 30% slower. On Linux,
# sync/hsha performance is about the same, with hsha of course using less memory.
rpc_server_type: sync

# Uncomment rpc_min|max|thread to set request pool size.
# You would primarily set max for the sync server to safeguard against
# misbehaved clients; if you do hit the max, Cassandra will block until one
# disconnects before accepting more. The defaults for sync are min of 16 and max
# unlimited.
#
# For the Hsha server, the min and max both default to quadruple the number of
# CPU cores.
#
# This configuration is ignored by the async server.
#
# rpc_min_threads: 16
# rpc_max_threads: 2048

# uncomment to set socket buffer sizes on rpc connections
# rpc_send_buff_size_in_bytes:
# rpc_recv_buff_size_in_bytes:

# Frame size for thrift (maximum field length).
# 0 disables TFramedTransport in favor of TSocket. This option
# is deprecated; we strongly recommend using Framed mode.
thrift_framed_transport_size_in_mb: 15

# The max length of a thrift message, including all fields and
# internal thrift overhead.
thrift_max_message_length_in_mb: 16

# Set to true to have Cassandra create a hard link to each sstable
# flushed or streamed locally in a backups/ subdirectory of the
# Keyspace data. Removing these links is the operator's
# responsibility.
incremental_backups: false

# Whether or not to take a snapshot before each compaction. Be
# careful using this option, since Cassandra won't clean up the
# snapshots for you. Mostly useful if you're paranoid when there
# is a data format change.
snapshot_before_compaction: false

# Add column indexes to a row after its contents reach this size.
# Increase if your column values are large, or if you have a very large
# number of columns. The competing causes are, Cassandra has to
# deserialize this much of the row to read a single column, so you want
# it to be small - at least if you do many partial-row reads - but all
# the index data is read for each access, so you don't want to generate
# that wastefully either.
column_index_size_in_kb: 64

# Size limit for rows being compacted in memory. Larger rows will spill
# over to disk and use a slower two-pass compaction process. A message
# will be logged specifying the row key.
in_memory_compaction_limit_in_mb: 64

# Number of simultaneous compactions to allow, NOT including
# validation "compactions" for anti-entropy repair. Simultaneous
# compactions can help preserve read performance in a mixed read/write
# workload, by mitigating the tendency of small sstables to accumulate
# during a single long running compactions. The default is usually
# fine and if you experience problems with compaction running too
# slowly or too fast, you should look at
# compaction_throughput_mb_per_sec first.
#
# This setting has no effect on LeveledCompactionStrategy.
#
# concurrent_compactors defaults to the number of cores.
# Uncomment to make compaction mono-threaded, the pre-0.8 default.
#concurrent_compactors: 1

# Multi-threaded compaction. When enabled, each compaction will use
# up to one thread per core, plus one thread per sstable being merged.
# This is usually only useful for SSD-based hardware: otherwise,
# your concern is usually to get compaction to do LESS i/o (see:
# compaction_throughput_mb_per_sec), not more.
multithreaded_compaction: false

# Throttles compaction to the given total throughput across the entire
# system. The faster you insert data, the faster you need to compact in
# order to keep the sstable count down, but in general, setting this to
# 16 to 32 times the rate you are inserting data is more than sufficient.
# Setting this to 0 disables throttling. Note that this account for all types
# of compaction, including validation compaction.
compaction_throughput_mb_per_sec: 16

# Track cached row keys during compaction, and re-cache their new
# positions in the compacted sstable. Disable if you use really large
# key caches.
compaction_preheat_key_cache: true

# Throttles all outbound streaming file transfers on this node to the
# given total throughput in Mbps. This is necessary because Cassandra does
# mostly sequential IO when streaming data during bootstrap or repair, which
# can lead to saturating the network connection and degrading rpc performance.
# When unset, the default is 400 Mbps or 50 MB/s.
# stream_throughput_outbound_megabits_per_sec: 400

# Time to wait for a reply from other nodes before failing the command
rpc_timeout_in_ms: 10000

# Enable socket timeout for streaming operation.
# When a timeout occurs during streaming, streaming is retried from the start
# of the current file. This *can* involve re-streaming an important amount of
# data, so you should avoid setting the value too low.
# Default value is 0, which never timeout streams.
# streaming_socket_timeout_in_ms: 0

# phi value that must be reached for a host to be marked down.
# most users should never need to adjust this.
# phi_convict_threshold: 8

# endpoint_snitch -- Set this to a class that implements
# IEndpointSnitch, which will let Cassandra know enough
# about your network topology to route requests efficiently.
# Out of the box, Cassandra provides
# - org.apache.cassandra.locator.SimpleSnitch:
# Treats Strategy order as proximity. This improves cache locality
# when disabling read repair, which can further improve throughput.
# - org.apache.cassandra.locator.RackInferringSnitch:
# Proximity is determined by rack and data center, which are
# assumed to correspond to the 3rd and 2nd octet of each node's
# IP address, respectively
# org.apache.cassandra.locator.PropertyFileSnitch:
# - Proximity is determined by rack and data center, which are
# explicitly configured in cassandra-topology.properties.
endpoint_snitch: org.apache.cassandra.locator.SimpleSnitch

# controls how often to perform the more expensive part of host score
# calculation
dynamic_snitch_update_interval_in_ms: 100
# controls how often to reset all host scores, allowing a bad host to
# possibly recover
dynamic_snitch_reset_interval_in_ms: 600000
# if set greater than zero and read_repair_chance is < 1.0, this will allow
# 'pinning' of replicas to hosts in order to increase cache capacity.
# The badness threshold will control how much worse the pinned host has to be
# before the dynamic snitch will prefer other replicas over it. This is
# expressed as a double which represents a percentage. Thus, a value of
# 0.2 means Cassandra would continue to prefer the static snitch values
# until the pinned host was 20% worse than the fastest.
dynamic_snitch_badness_threshold: 0.1

# request_scheduler -- Set this to a class that implements
# RequestScheduler, which will schedule incoming client requests
# according to the specific policy. This is useful for multi-tenancy
# with a single Cassandra cluster.
# NOTE: This is specifically for requests from the client and does
# not affect inter node communication.
# org.apache.cassandra.scheduler.NoScheduler - No scheduling takes place
# org.apache.cassandra.scheduler.RoundRobinScheduler - Round robin of
# client requests to a node with a separate queue for each
# request_scheduler_id. The scheduler is further customized by
# request_scheduler_options as described below.
request_scheduler: org.apache.cassandra.scheduler.NoScheduler

# Scheduler Options vary based on the type of scheduler
# NoScheduler - Has no options
# RoundRobin
# - throttle_limit -- The throttle_limit is the number of in-flight
# requests per client. Requests beyond
# that limit are queued up until
# running requests can complete.
# The value of 80 here is twice the number of
# concurrent_reads + concurrent_writes.
# - default_weight -- default_weight is optional and allows for
# overriding the default which is 1.
# - weights -- Weights are optional and will default to 1 or the
# overridden default_weight. The weight translates into how
# many requests are handled during each turn of the
# RoundRobin, based on the scheduler id.
#
# request_scheduler_options:
# throttle_limit: 80
# default_weight: 5
# weights:
# Keyspace1: 1
# Keyspace2: 5

# request_scheduler_id -- An identifer based on which to perform
# the request scheduling. Currently the only valid option is keyspace.
# request_scheduler_id: keyspace

# index_interval controls the sampling of entries from the primrary
# row index in terms of space versus time. The larger the interval,
# the smaller and less effective the sampling will be. In technicial
# terms, the interval coresponds to the number of index entries that
# are skipped between taking each sample. All the sampled entries
# must fit in memory. Generally, a value between 128 and 512 here
# coupled with a large key cache size on CFs results in the best trade
# offs. This value is not often changed, however if you have many
# very small rows (many to an OS page), then increasing this will
# often lower memory usage without a impact on performance.
index_interval: 128

# Enable or disable inter-node encryption
# Default settings are TLS v1, RSA 1024-bit keys (it is imperative that
# users generate their own keys) TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA as the cipher
# suite for authentication, key exchange and encryption of the actual data transfers.
# NOTE: No custom encryption options are enabled at the moment
# The available internode options are : all, none, dc, rack
#
# If set to dc cassandra will encrypt the traffic between the DCs
# If set to rack cassandra will encrypt the traffic between the racks
#
# The passwords used in these options must match the passwords used when generating
# the keystore and truststore. For instructions on generating these files, see:
# http://download.oracle.com/javase/6/docs/technotes/guides/security/jsse/JSSERefGuide.html#CreateKeystore
#
encryption_options:
internode_encryption: none
keystore: conf/.keystore
keystore_password: cassandra
truststore: conf/.truststore
truststore_password: cassandra
# More advanced defaults below:
# protocol: TLS
# algorithm: SunX509
# store_type: JKS
# cipher_suites: [TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA,TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA]

Now, configuration for node2

Remember to set a FQDN hostname in /etc/rc.conf
hostname="node2.example.com"

Edit cassandra.yaml to make Cassandra work in a two-node cluster:
vi /usr/local/share/cassandra/conf/cassandra.yaml

Feel free to use the following configuration file slightly changed to serve as second node of the cluster:


# Cassandra storage config YAML

# NOTE:
# See http://wiki.apache.org/cassandra/StorageConfiguration for
# full explanations of configuration directives
# /NOTE

# The name of the cluster. This is mainly used to prevent machines in
# one logical cluster from joining another.
cluster_name: 'Test Cluster'

# You should always specify InitialToken when setting up a production
# cluster for the first time, and often when adding capacity later.
# The principle is that each node should be given an equal slice of
# the token ring; see http://wiki.apache.org/cassandra/Operations
# for more details.
#
# If blank, Cassandra will request a token bisecting the range of
# the heaviest-loaded existing node. If there is no load information
# available, such as is the case with a new cluster, it will pick
# a random token, which will lead to hot spots.
initial_token: 85070591730234615865843651857942052864

# See http://wiki.apache.org/cassandra/HintedHandoff
hinted_handoff_enabled: true
# this defines the maximum amount of time a dead host will have hints
# generated. After it has been dead this long, hints will be dropped.
max_hint_window_in_ms: 3600000 # one hour
# Sleep this long after delivering each hint
hinted_handoff_throttle_delay_in_ms: 1

# authentication backend, implementing IAuthenticator; used to identify users
authenticator: org.apache.cassandra.auth.AllowAllAuthenticator

# authorization backend, implementing IAuthority; used to limit access/provide permissions
authority: org.apache.cassandra.auth.AllowAllAuthority

# The partitioner is responsible for distributing rows (by key) across
# nodes in the cluster. Any IPartitioner may be used, including your
# own as long as it is on the classpath. Out of the box, Cassandra
# provides org.apache.cassandra.dht.RandomPartitioner
# org.apache.cassandra.dht.ByteOrderedPartitioner,
# org.apache.cassandra.dht.OrderPreservingPartitioner (deprecated),
# and org.apache.cassandra.dht.CollatingOrderPreservingPartitioner
# (deprecated).
#
# - RandomPartitioner distributes rows across the cluster evenly by md5.
# When in doubt, this is the best option.
# - ByteOrderedPartitioner orders rows lexically by key bytes. BOP allows
# scanning rows in key order, but the ordering can generate hot spots
# for sequential insertion workloads.
# - OrderPreservingPartitioner is an obsolete form of BOP, that stores
# - keys in a less-efficient format and only works with keys that are
# UTF8-encoded Strings.
# - CollatingOPP colates according to EN,US rules rather than lexical byte
# ordering. Use this as an example if you need custom collation.
#
# See http://wiki.apache.org/cassandra/Operations for more on
# partitioners and token selection.
partitioner: org.apache.cassandra.dht.RandomPartitioner

# directories where Cassandra should store data on disk.
data_file_directories:
- /var/lib/cassandra/data

# commit log
commitlog_directory: /var/lib/cassandra/commitlog

# saved caches
saved_caches_directory: /var/lib/cassandra/saved_caches

# commitlog_sync may be either "periodic" or "batch."
# When in batch mode, Cassandra won't ack writes until the commit log
# has been fsynced to disk. It will wait up to
# commitlog_sync_batch_window_in_ms milliseconds for other writes, before
# performing the sync.
#
# commitlog_sync: batch
# commitlog_sync_batch_window_in_ms: 50
#
# the other option is "periodic" where writes may be acked immediately
# and the CommitLog is simply synced every commitlog_sync_period_in_ms
# milliseconds.
commitlog_sync: periodic
commitlog_sync_period_in_ms: 10000

# any class that implements the SeedProvider interface and has a
# constructor that takes a Map of parameters will do.
seed_provider:
# Addresses of hosts that are deemed contact points.
# Cassandra nodes use this list of hosts to find each other and learn
# the topology of the ring. You must change this if you are running
# multiple nodes!
- class_name: org.apache.cassandra.locator.SimpleSeedProvider
parameters:
# seeds is actually a comma-delimited list of addresses.
# Ex: ",,"
- seeds: "192.0.2.1"

# emergency pressure valve: each time heap usage after a full (CMS)
# garbage collection is above this fraction of the max, Cassandra will
# flush the largest memtables.
#
# Set to 1.0 to disable. Setting this lower than
# CMSInitiatingOccupancyFraction is not likely to be useful.
#
# RELYING ON THIS AS YOUR PRIMARY TUNING MECHANISM WILL WORK POORLY:
# it is most effective under light to moderate load, or read-heavy
# workloads; under truly massive write load, it will often be too
# little, too late.
flush_largest_memtables_at: 0.75

# emergency pressure valve #2: the first time heap usage after a full
# (CMS) garbage collection is above this fraction of the max,
# Cassandra will reduce cache maximum _capacity_ to the given fraction
# of the current _size_. Should usually be set substantially above
# flush_largest_memtables_at, since that will have less long-term
# impact on the system.
#
# Set to 1.0 to disable. Setting this lower than
# CMSInitiatingOccupancyFraction is not likely to be useful.
reduce_cache_sizes_at: 0.85
reduce_cache_capacity_to: 0.6

# For workloads with more data than can fit in memory, Cassandra's
# bottleneck will be reads that need to fetch data from
# disk. "concurrent_reads" should be set to (16 * number_of_drives) in
# order to allow the operations to enqueue low enough in the stack
# that the OS and drives can reorder them.
#
# On the other hand, since writes are almost never IO bound, the ideal
# number of "concurrent_writes" is dependent on the number of cores in
# your system; (8 * number_of_cores) is a good rule of thumb.
concurrent_reads: 32
concurrent_writes: 32

# Total memory to use for memtables. Cassandra will flush the largest
# memtable when this much memory is used.
# If omitted, Cassandra will set it to 1/3 of the heap.
# memtable_total_space_in_mb: 2048

# Total space to use for commitlogs.
# If space gets above this value (it will round up to the next nearest
# segment multiple), Cassandra will flush every dirty CF in the oldest
# segment and remove it.
# commitlog_total_space_in_mb: 4096

# This sets the amount of memtable flush writer threads. These will
# be blocked by disk io, and each one will hold a memtable in memory
# while blocked. If you have a large heap and many data directories,
# you can increase this value for better flush performance.
# By default this will be set to the amount of data directories defined.
#memtable_flush_writers: 1

# the number of full memtables to allow pending flush, that is,
# waiting for a writer thread. At a minimum, this should be set to
# the maximum number of secondary indexes created on a single CF.
memtable_flush_queue_size: 4

# Buffer size to use when performing contiguous column slices.
# Increase this to the size of the column slices you typically perform
sliced_buffer_size_in_kb: 64

# TCP port, for commands and data
storage_port: 7000

# SSL port, for encrypted communication. Unused unless enabled in
# encryption_options
ssl_storage_port: 7001

# Address to bind to and tell other Cassandra nodes to connect to. You
# _must_ change this if you want multiple nodes to be able to
# communicate!
#
# Leaving it blank leaves it up to InetAddress.getLocalHost(). This
# will always do the Right Thing *if* the node is properly configured
# (hostname, name resolution, etc), and the Right Thing is to use the
# address associated with the hostname (it might not be).
#
# Setting this to 0.0.0.0 is always wrong.
listen_address: 192.0.2.2

# Address to broadcast to other Cassandra nodes
# Leaving this blank will set it to the same value as listen_address
# broadcast_address: 1.2.3.4

# The address to bind the Thrift RPC service to -- clients connect
# here. Unlike ListenAddress above, you *can* specify 0.0.0.0 here if
# you want Thrift to listen on all interfaces.
#
# Leaving this blank has the same effect it does for ListenAddress,
# (i.e. it will be based on the configured hostname of the node).
rpc_address: 192.0.2.2
# port for Thrift to listen for clients on
rpc_port: 9160

# enable or disable keepalive on rpc connections
rpc_keepalive: true

# Cassandra provides three options for the RPC Server:
#
# sync -> One connection per thread in the rpc pool (see below).
# For a very large number of clients, memory will be your limiting
# factor; on a 64 bit JVM, 128KB is the minimum stack size per thread.
# Connection pooling is very, very strongly recommended.
#
# async -> Nonblocking server implementation with one thread to serve
# rpc connections. This is not recommended for high throughput use
# cases. Async has been tested to be about 50% slower than sync
# or hsha and is deprecated: it will be removed in the next major release.
#
# hsha -> Stands for "half synchronous, half asynchronous." The rpc thread pool
# (see below) is used to manage requests, but the threads are multiplexed
# across the different clients.
#
# The default is sync because on Windows hsha is about 30% slower. On Linux,
# sync/hsha performance is about the same, with hsha of course using less memory.
rpc_server_type: sync

# Uncomment rpc_min|max|thread to set request pool size.
# You would primarily set max for the sync server to safeguard against
# misbehaved clients; if you do hit the max, Cassandra will block until one
# disconnects before accepting more. The defaults for sync are min of 16 and max
# unlimited.
#
# For the Hsha server, the min and max both default to quadruple the number of
# CPU cores.
#
# This configuration is ignored by the async server.
#
# rpc_min_threads: 16
# rpc_max_threads: 2048

# uncomment to set socket buffer sizes on rpc connections
# rpc_send_buff_size_in_bytes:
# rpc_recv_buff_size_in_bytes:

# Frame size for thrift (maximum field length).
# 0 disables TFramedTransport in favor of TSocket. This option
# is deprecated; we strongly recommend using Framed mode.
thrift_framed_transport_size_in_mb: 15

# The max length of a thrift message, including all fields and
# internal thrift overhead.
thrift_max_message_length_in_mb: 16

# Set to true to have Cassandra create a hard link to each sstable
# flushed or streamed locally in a backups/ subdirectory of the
# Keyspace data. Removing these links is the operator's
# responsibility.
incremental_backups: false

# Whether or not to take a snapshot before each compaction. Be
# careful using this option, since Cassandra won't clean up the
# snapshots for you. Mostly useful if you're paranoid when there
# is a data format change.
snapshot_before_compaction: false

# Add column indexes to a row after its contents reach this size.
# Increase if your column values are large, or if you have a very large
# number of columns. The competing causes are, Cassandra has to
# deserialize this much of the row to read a single column, so you want
# it to be small - at least if you do many partial-row reads - but all
# the index data is read for each access, so you don't want to generate
# that wastefully either.
column_index_size_in_kb: 64

# Size limit for rows being compacted in memory. Larger rows will spill
# over to disk and use a slower two-pass compaction process. A message
# will be logged specifying the row key.
in_memory_compaction_limit_in_mb: 64

# Number of simultaneous compactions to allow, NOT including
# validation "compactions" for anti-entropy repair. Simultaneous
# compactions can help preserve read performance in a mixed read/write
# workload, by mitigating the tendency of small sstables to accumulate
# during a single long running compactions. The default is usually
# fine and if you experience problems with compaction running too
# slowly or too fast, you should look at
# compaction_throughput_mb_per_sec first.
#
# This setting has no effect on LeveledCompactionStrategy.
#
# concurrent_compactors defaults to the number of cores.
# Uncomment to make compaction mono-threaded, the pre-0.8 default.
#concurrent_compactors: 1

# Multi-threaded compaction. When enabled, each compaction will use
# up to one thread per core, plus one thread per sstable being merged.
# This is usually only useful for SSD-based hardware: otherwise,
# your concern is usually to get compaction to do LESS i/o (see:
# compaction_throughput_mb_per_sec), not more.
multithreaded_compaction: false

# Throttles compaction to the given total throughput across the entire
# system. The faster you insert data, the faster you need to compact in
# order to keep the sstable count down, but in general, setting this to
# 16 to 32 times the rate you are inserting data is more than sufficient.
# Setting this to 0 disables throttling. Note that this account for all types
# of compaction, including validation compaction.
compaction_throughput_mb_per_sec: 16

# Track cached row keys during compaction, and re-cache their new
# positions in the compacted sstable. Disable if you use really large
# key caches.
compaction_preheat_key_cache: true

# Throttles all outbound streaming file transfers on this node to the
# given total throughput in Mbps. This is necessary because Cassandra does
# mostly sequential IO when streaming data during bootstrap or repair, which
# can lead to saturating the network connection and degrading rpc performance.
# When unset, the default is 400 Mbps or 50 MB/s.
# stream_throughput_outbound_megabits_per_sec: 400

# Time to wait for a reply from other nodes before failing the command
rpc_timeout_in_ms: 10000

# Enable socket timeout for streaming operation.
# When a timeout occurs during streaming, streaming is retried from the start
# of the current file. This *can* involve re-streaming an important amount of
# data, so you should avoid setting the value too low.
# Default value is 0, which never timeout streams.
# streaming_socket_timeout_in_ms: 0

# phi value that must be reached for a host to be marked down.
# most users should never need to adjust this.
# phi_convict_threshold: 8

# endpoint_snitch -- Set this to a class that implements
# IEndpointSnitch, which will let Cassandra know enough
# about your network topology to route requests efficiently.
# Out of the box, Cassandra provides
# - org.apache.cassandra.locator.SimpleSnitch:
# Treats Strategy order as proximity. This improves cache locality
# when disabling read repair, which can further improve throughput.
# - org.apache.cassandra.locator.RackInferringSnitch:
# Proximity is determined by rack and data center, which are
# assumed to correspond to the 3rd and 2nd octet of each node's
# IP address, respectively
# org.apache.cassandra.locator.PropertyFileSnitch:
# - Proximity is determined by rack and data center, which are
# explicitly configured in cassandra-topology.properties.
endpoint_snitch: org.apache.cassandra.locator.SimpleSnitch

# controls how often to perform the more expensive part of host score
# calculation
dynamic_snitch_update_interval_in_ms: 100
# controls how often to reset all host scores, allowing a bad host to
# possibly recover
dynamic_snitch_reset_interval_in_ms: 600000
# if set greater than zero and read_repair_chance is < 1.0, this will allow
# 'pinning' of replicas to hosts in order to increase cache capacity.
# The badness threshold will control how much worse the pinned host has to be
# before the dynamic snitch will prefer other replicas over it. This is
# expressed as a double which represents a percentage. Thus, a value of
# 0.2 means Cassandra would continue to prefer the static snitch values
# until the pinned host was 20% worse than the fastest.
dynamic_snitch_badness_threshold: 0.1

# request_scheduler -- Set this to a class that implements
# RequestScheduler, which will schedule incoming client requests
# according to the specific policy. This is useful for multi-tenancy
# with a single Cassandra cluster.
# NOTE: This is specifically for requests from the client and does
# not affect inter node communication.
# org.apache.cassandra.scheduler.NoScheduler - No scheduling takes place
# org.apache.cassandra.scheduler.RoundRobinScheduler - Round robin of
# client requests to a node with a separate queue for each
# request_scheduler_id. The scheduler is further customized by
# request_scheduler_options as described below.
request_scheduler: org.apache.cassandra.scheduler.NoScheduler

# Scheduler Options vary based on the type of scheduler
# NoScheduler - Has no options
# RoundRobin
# - throttle_limit -- The throttle_limit is the number of in-flight
# requests per client. Requests beyond
# that limit are queued up until
# running requests can complete.
# The value of 80 here is twice the number of
# concurrent_reads + concurrent_writes.
# - default_weight -- default_weight is optional and allows for
# overriding the default which is 1.
# - weights -- Weights are optional and will default to 1 or the
# overridden default_weight. The weight translates into how
# many requests are handled during each turn of the
# RoundRobin, based on the scheduler id.
#
# request_scheduler_options:
# throttle_limit: 80
# default_weight: 5
# weights:
# Keyspace1: 1
# Keyspace2: 5

# request_scheduler_id -- An identifer based on which to perform
# the request scheduling. Currently the only valid option is keyspace.
# request_scheduler_id: keyspace

# index_interval controls the sampling of entries from the primrary
# row index in terms of space versus time. The larger the interval,
# the smaller and less effective the sampling will be. In technicial
# terms, the interval coresponds to the number of index entries that
# are skipped between taking each sample. All the sampled entries
# must fit in memory. Generally, a value between 128 and 512 here
# coupled with a large key cache size on CFs results in the best trade
# offs. This value is not often changed, however if you have many
# very small rows (many to an OS page), then increasing this will
# often lower memory usage without a impact on performance.
index_interval: 128

# Enable or disable inter-node encryption
# Default settings are TLS v1, RSA 1024-bit keys (it is imperative that
# users generate their own keys) TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA as the cipher
# suite for authentication, key exchange and encryption of the actual data transfers.
# NOTE: No custom encryption options are enabled at the moment
# The available internode options are : all, none, dc, rack
#
# If set to dc cassandra will encrypt the traffic between the DCs
# If set to rack cassandra will encrypt the traffic between the racks
#
# The passwords used in these options must match the passwords used when generating
# the keystore and truststore. For instructions on generating these files, see:
# http://download.oracle.com/javase/6/docs/technotes/guides/security/jsse/JSSERefGuide.html#CreateKeystore
#
encryption_options:
internode_encryption: none
keystore: conf/.keystore
keystore_password: cassandra
truststore: conf/.truststore
truststore_password: cassandra
# More advanced defaults below:
# protocol: TLS
# algorithm: SunX509
# store_type: JKS
# cipher_suites: [TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA,TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA]

Now start Cassandra on both nodes:
/usr/local/etc/rc.d/cassandra start

Then look at the cluster ring:

nodetool -h localhost ring
Address DC Rack Status State Load Owns Token
192.0.2.1 datacenter1 rack1 Up Normal 73.71 KB 50.00% 0
192.0.2.2 datacenter1 rack1 Up Normal 64.71 KB 50.00% 85070591730234615865843651857942052864

Note that the cluster is well balanced thanks to the token’s value set inside cassandra.yaml.

Now use cassandra-cli to interact with Cassandra.
Connect to the cluster from node1:


cassandra-cli -h 192.0.2.1
Connected to: "Test Cluster" on 192.0.2.1/9160
Welcome to Cassandra CLI version 1.0.9

Type 'help;' or '?' for help.
Type 'quit;' or 'exit;' to quit.

[[email protected]]

Now define a keyspace:


[[email protected]] create keyspace DEMO;
09a51290-94ff-11e1-0000-b46f7d0b30bb
Waiting for schema agreement...
... schemas agree across the cluster

Authenticate to use your keyspace:


[[email protected]] use DEMO;
Authenticated to keyspace: DEMO

Create a column family:


[[email protected]] create column family Users;
63acdcf0-94ff-11e1-0000-b46f7d0b30bb
Waiting for schema agreement...
... schemas agree across the cluster

Store some data in the column:


[[email protected]] set Users[utf8('1234')][utf8('name')] = utf8('scott');
Value inserted.
Elapsed time: 113 msec(s).
[[email protected]] set Users[utf8('1234')][utf8('password')] = utf8('tiger');
Value inserted.
Elapsed time: 5 msec(s).

Fetch the data just inserted:


[[email protected]] get Users[utf8('1234')];
=> (column=6e616d65, value=scott, timestamp=1336036165927000)
=> (column=70617373776f7264, value=tiger, timestamp=1336036181537000)
Returned 2 results.
Elapsed time: 55 msec(s).

Exit the command line interface:


[[email protected]] quit;

What you have now is a fully working Cassandra database cluster made of two nodes. This is just a quick guide to get started, therefore you are warmly encouraged to read the whole background documentation and the manuals as well.

Creative Commons License
How to run Apache Cassandra database on a two nodes FreeBSD 9.0 cluster by Antonio Prado is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International

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